Folegandros and the most cycladic Islands, passed into possession of many different peoples and cultures over the centuries because of their geographical position. The first residences on the island, according to the archaeological findings, are placed in the prehistoric era. Carians, Phoenicians and Dorians were some of the people who passed through the island, while the 5th century, after the signing of the second Athenian Alliance, Folegandros passed into possession of Athens. The Macedonians left samples of their presence on the island, conquering the era of Alexander the great and the Ptolemies all the then known Greek place. The Roman era, Folegandros was used primarily as a place of exile. In the hands of the Byzantine emperors the island did not enjoy particular booming. Folegandros, in 1204, is enrolled in the Duchy of the Aegean and the founder of the Duchy ,Marco Sanudo ,took care for the creation of the castle of the island so that the residents can protect themselves against pirate raids where they had a big frequency in the Aegean region, untill the 18th century. The Ottomans, in 1617, after a series of hostilities with the Franks, who in the meantime had occupied the Islands from the Venetians, succeded to annex folegandros and the rounding islands in the lands of their empire. This sovereignty there will be a break from 1770 to 1774, during the Russo-Turkish war where all the Islands passed into possession of the Russians. Folegandros, in 1830, is enrolled, free anymore of conquistadores, in the newly formed Greek State. After the liberation and until the dawn of the 20th century the island is aided financially by the Folegandros island's immigrants in Istanbul. During the 20th century Folegandros was place of exile. The 1919 Venizelos exiled on the island 5 SEKE's leaders (communistic) followed by exile and other political opponents of the Government, over Metaxa, during the Greek civil war and the dictatorship of the colonels of 1967.
The actual origin of the name of the island has not been elucidated. According to legend, shepherds from Western Greece settled the island and because they were in the majority men gave the island the name Polyandros. The Venetians changed this name of the island calling it Polykandros. Others sources of the island appears with the name pheleckgundari, which is of Phoenician origin and means "stony ground". A third version says that the island took its name from the first settler, the son of King Minos, Folegandros. The last interpretation is justified by the effort of the locals to justify the name of their place and the story of their past to acquire a foundation.
LIVING IN FOLEGANDROS
The inhabitants of the island deal mainly with the agriculture and the livestock-farming but there is also a small number of fishermen. Each home consumes meat, dairy and vegetables from their own production. The locals selling fish and livestock products in the markets of Athens, when there is a surplus. There is also a portion of men who deal exclusively with construction jobs. In recent years, however, the increase of visitors to the island during the summer months has led many families in dealing with tourist enterprises.